Some organisms cross barriers with the intentional or unintentional help of humans, a process called invasion. An example is the New Zealand mud snail, which was accidentally brought to North America when trout from New Zealand were imported to a fish hatchery in the United States. It has caused extensive environmental damage in streams and rivers. In the invasive species’ native environments, there are typically predators, parasites, and competitors that keep their numbers down, but in their new environment, natural checks are left behind, giving the invaders an advantage over native species. Invasive species may spread so quickly that they threaten commercial, agricultural, or recreational activities.
Which of the following sentences best expresses the essential information in the sentence in bold? ( Incorrect answer choices omit important information or change the meaning of the original sentence in an important way.)
A. Invasive species are organisms that leave their native environments behind and move to a new environment.
B. Native species are at a disadvantage compared to invasive species because they face environmental dangers that invasive species have left behind.
C. The greatest danger from invasive species is that they may spread parasites among native species.
D. In a new environment, predators, parasites, and competitors prevent invasive species from spreading as fast as native species.
Psychologist Abraham Maslowe believed that, even though each person is a unique individual, all humans have certain common needs. Maslowe identified these needs and put them in order from the most basic to the highest-level need. This hierarchy of needs has become the basis for many theories of motivation. The five classes of motivation are as follows:
1. Physiological needs (food, water, air, etc.)
2. Safety needs (protection from threats)
3. Love and social needs (feelings of belonging and affection)
4. Self-esteem needs (feelings of self-worth, achievement, and recognition from others)
5. Self-actualization needs (fulfillment of one’s ambitions)
Maslowe believed that individuals try to fulfill the most basic needs first. He suggested that a largely satisfied need--it does not have to be fully satisfied--is no longer a motivator of behavior. People move on to try to satisfy higher-level needs. It follows that for people whose hunger is regularly satisfied, the need for food does not motivate them in the way that it does people who are regularly concerned about the availability of food. It is also possible, of course, that people are concerned with several of these classes of motivation simultaneously, as would be the case if, on the same day, a person installed a fire safety alarm (satisfying a need for protection) and joined a folk-dancing club (satisfying a need for belonging).
Which of the following sentences best expresses the essential information in the sentence in bold? (Incorrect answer choices omit important information or change the meaning of the original sentence in an important way.)
A. People may satisfy more than one of Maslowe’s categories of needs at the same time.
B. Obviously, for some people, installing a fire safety alarm is more important than joining a social club.
C. A typical person is more motivated to satisfy a higher-level need, such as the need for belonging, than a lower-level need, such as the need for protection from fire.
D. The fact that people can simultaneously satisfy several of these classes of motivation suggests that Maslowe’s hierarchy is not a valid theory.