TPO 2 The Origins of Theater
In seeking to describe the origins of theater, one must rely primarily on speculation, since there is little concrete evidence on which to draw. The most widely accepted theory, championed by anthropologists in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, envisions theater as emerging out of myth and ritual. The process perceived by these anthropologists may be summarized briefly. During the early stages of its development, a society becomes aware of forces that appear to influence or control its food supply and well-being. Having little understanding of natural causes, it attributes both desirable and undesirable occurrences to supernatural or magical forces, and it searches for means to win the favor of these forces. Perceiving an apparent connection between certain actions performed by the group and the result it desires, the group repeats, refines and formalizes those actions into fixed ceremonies, or rituals.
Question: According to paragraph 1, why did some societies develop and repeat ceremonial actions?
A.To establish a positive connection between the members of the society
B.To help society members better understand the forces controlling their food supply
C.To distinguish their beliefs from those of other societies
D.To increase the society's prosperity
But neither the human imitative instinct nor a penchant for fantasy by itself leads to an autonomous theater. Therefore, additional explanations are needed. One necessary condition seems to be a somewhat detached view of human problems. For example, one sign of this condition is the appearance of the comic vision, since comedy requires sufficient detachment to view some deviations from social norms as ridiculous rather than as serious threats to the welfare of the entire group. Another condition that contributes to the development of autonomous theater is the emergence of the aesthetic sense. For example, some early societies ceased to consider certain rites essential to their wellbeing and abandoned them, nevertheless, they retained as parts of their oral tradition the myths that had grown up around the rites and admired them for their artistic qualities rather than for their religious usefulness.
Question: Why does the author mention "comedy"?
A. To give an example of early types of theater
B. To explain how theater helps a society respond to threats to its welfare
C. To help explain why detachment is needed for the development of theater
D. To show how theatrical performers become detached from other members of society.
解析：题干问的是为什么作者要提到comedy。这种作者目的题，必须要看语境，即上下文。Comedy是出现在一个例子中的，那么要想知道它的功用，就必须知道这个例子为什么出现，那么只能往前文看。在提到这个例子时，作者写道： One necessary condition seems to be a somewhat detached view of human problems. 意思为“一个必要的条件是对人类苦难要超脱的看待。” 这里面所提到的必要条件指的是发展戏剧的条件，因此答案选C。 A选项的给出一个早期戏剧的类型并不是“comedy”出现的原因（不符合语境），B选项说它可以帮助人们去应对那些对社会福祉的威胁， 这个是将原文单词拎出来的一个大拼盘，逻辑关系完全不符合原文；D选项说是为了呈现戏剧表演者是怎样和社会成员脱离开的。原文并没有提到这一点。